One of the most important priorities facing modern societies is the well-being and health care of most people who will need advanced medical imaging services at some stage in their lives. Medical imaging is needed for the accurate diagnosis and treatment of a wide spectrum of diseases. Current developments in medical imaging technology face ever-increasing pressures and shifting goals. From increasing population size and increasing average age to increased care expectations, linked to inflating financial costs and unpredictable economic status, medical imaging technology has continued to improve its ability in the detection, diagnosis, staging of disease and indeed in guiding therapy. Developments included not only increasing both spatial and temporal resolution, but also reduced level of ionizing radiation, and therefore better safety standards, the invention of new modalities, the development of new contrast agents and biomarkers at the molecular level. For example, functional imaging has helped to shed light on molecular features of biological, physiologic, and pathophysiologic processes. Looking backward, imaging sciences have advanced strongly at ever-increasing rates from the early days of X-ray imaging. The spread of highly sophisticated imaging techniques that are capable of interrogating 3-dimensional tissues non-invasively and providing valuable information about tissue composition and function are remarkable achievements. The degree of experimental precision and resolution has led to new areas of research cohesively and strongly allied to medical imaging especially in nanotechnology and molecular biology leading ultimately, perhaps, to individualized diagnosis and treatment.