INVESTIGATION OF THE ORAL MICROBIOME AND SALIVARY BIOMARKERS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
Farah Ibrahim Al-Marzooq
Wound Healing & Oral Diagnosis Research Group
Sharjah Institute of Medical Research, University of Sharjah, UAE
The oral microbiome plays a relevant role in human health and it is a key element in a variety of oral and systemic diseases. There is a relation between oral and systemic diseases, but the question remains whether the oral diseases are the cause or the consequence of pathological process in other body sites. The aim of this study is to compare the bacterial community and the level of selected biomarkers in the saliva of adults in health and disease conditions. At this stage, we compared obese (diabetics and non-diabetics) with non-obese adults. 90 saliva samples were collected from three equal groups (obese with diabetes, obese without diabetes and non-obese control). The concentration of salivary resistin, an adipocytokine, was measured using ELISA technique. Randomly selected samples (26 from each group) were investigated for the oral microbiome. Real-time PCR was used to quantify selected bacterial species associated with periodontitis (Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), gingivitis (Fusobacterium) and dental caries (Bifidobacterium). Salivary resistin levels were significantly higher in the obese patients (diabetics and non-diabetics) compared to the non-obese control. There was significant correlation between salivary resistin levels and both BMI and weight. No correlation was found between salivary resistin and blood glucose levels. Fusobacterium (associated with gingivitis), Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia (associated with periodontitis) were detected in significantly higher quantities in the obese patients (diabetics and non-diabetics) compared to the non-obese control. No correlation was found between the levels of salivary resistin and different oral bacteria, although both of them were higher in obese patients. This study highlighted the usefulness of saliva as a non-invasive sample for the detection of biomarkers and microbes associated with oral and systemic diseases. This may pave the way for more effective diagnostic and therapeutic methods which can contribute to the development of personalized medicine and personalized dental medicine.
Farah has completed her Bachelor of medicine and surgery from College of Medicine, Baghdad University, Iraq in 2007. She has obtained Master of Medical sciences from the Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia in 2010. She was awarded PhD degree in medical microbiology from the Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Malaysia in 2015. She is committed to working at the interface of the basic sciences and clinical medicine. Her research aims in developing new approaches for the diagnosis of diseases by the use of the molecular methods and the study of biomarkers in relation to different systemic diseases. She is currently working as a post-doctoral research associate in Sharjah institute of medical research.