Phenotypic Characterization of Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) Isolated from Irreversible Pulpitis Patients
Soumya Sheela Aravind PhD
Post-Doctoral Research Associate
Dental Biomaterials Research Group-Sharjah Institute of Medical Research, University of Sharjah
Dental pulp inflammation resulting from dental caries often leads to a pathologic condition known as irreversible pulpitis and is currently managed by root canal treatment. Extirpation of the entire pulp tissue is done during this procedure and the canal space is filled with synthetic materials. Though the pulp tissue is infected, some portion of the irreversibly inflamed pulp tissue could be viable with progenitor cells, having the properties similar to that of Mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, we aim to isolate Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) from patients diagnosed with severe irreversible pulpitis and characterize the cells for the MSC specific markers. The pulp tissue collected from the dental clinic was subjected to two methods of cell isolation procedures; an outgrowth method and enzyme digestion method. The isolated cells were expanded in culture and the phenotypic characterization was done using flow cytometry. MSC specific markers such as CD-90, CD-73, and CD-105 were analyzed along with negative markers such as CD-14 and CD-45. The isolated cells expressed positive expression for CD markers with CD-90 and CD-105 (>95%). The cells did not express the negative markers CD-14 and CD-45. The commercially available DPSCs from vital extracted teeth, preferably molar/wisdom teeth with large pulp cavity or incomplete root growth in young patients (aged 15-30 years) showed more than 95% expression for all the CD markers such as CD-90, 73 and 105, whereas negative for CD-14 and CD-45. The DPSCs isolated from inflamed pulp tissue showed a less expression for CD-73 compared to the commercially available DPSCs whereas, as the other two markers were found to show a similar percentage of positive expression. This could be attributed to the fact that the pulp population is very heterogeneous and patient wise difference in the percentage of CD marker expression will be there. Hence the phenotypic characterization and comparison with the commercially available DPSCs proved that the inflamed pulp tissue is a good source of MSC like cells which can be utilized further for the regenerative application.